Videos uploaded by user “It's AumSum Time”
Human Tears - Why do onions make you cry? | #aumsum
Topic: Human Tears Why do onions make you cry? Because they cannot crack a joke. No. Onions consist of amino acid sulfoxides. When we cut an onion, millions of onions cells rupture, releasing the amino acid sulfoxides along with some special enzymes. These special enzymes react with amino acid sulfoxides to form a chemical called Syn-propanethial-S-oxide. This chemical is volatile, that is, it easily evaporates at normal temperature, forming a gas. When this gas reaches our eyes, it reacts with the substance that keeps our eyes lubricated and forms mild sulfuric acid. What? An acid in my eyes. Absolutely. This sulfuric acid gives us a burning sensation. Now, in order to wash off this acid, our lacrimal glands produce a disinfecting liquid. But when our eyes cannot hold any extra amount of disinfecting liquid, it starts to fall down, making us cry.
Views: 484557 It's AumSum Time
Why do we get white hair? | #aumsum
Topic: Human Hair Why do we get white hair? Because we cannot get blue hair. No. Our hair is basically made up of keratin, a colorless protein. Hence, before our hair comes out of the skin, it is almost white. How's that possible? I had black hair during childhood. Don't worry. I will explain. Our hair grows from hair follicles. A hair follicle contains melanocytes which produce melanin. Melanin is injected in the keratin cells during the growth of our hair. This melanin gives color to our hair. Now, the color of our hair is dependent on the type of melanin injected. Eumelanin makes our hair black or brown while pheomelanin makes our hair red or blond. However, as we grow old, the melanocytes decrease the production of melanin. Thus, less melanin is injected in hair, causing them to eventually turn white.
Views: 567334 It's AumSum Time
How do bees make honey? | #aumsum
To make honey, the worker honeybee sucks nectar from flowers and stores it in its honey stomach. Once the worker bee returns to the hive, it vomits the nectar into a processor honeybee's mouth. In the processor bee's mouth and stomach, an enzyme called invertase is added to the nectar. Invertase breaks some nectar into simple sugars like glucose and fructose. Then it vomits the partially converted nectar into another processor bee's mouth, who also adds more invertase, helping breakdown more nectar. This process goes on until most of the nectar is converted into simple sugars. Then the mixture of simple sugars is stored in the honeycomb. At this point, the mixture is still watery. Hence, the bees flap their wings which evaporates water and thickens the mixture to eventually form honey.
Views: 714999 It's AumSum Time
Why do we get hiccups? | #aumsum
Topic: Breathing Why do we get hiccups? We get them when our friends think of us. No. We get hiccups mainly because of our diaphragm. Diaphragm is a dome shaped muscle between our lungs and stomach. It generally works perfectly. Just like me, right? No. When we inhale, our diaphragm contracts helping us take in air into the lungs. When we exhale, it relaxes, helping us give out air. However, sometimes this contraction does not happen properly. One of the reasons is excess eating. Eating too much too quickly causes our stomach to swell, causing discomfort to our diaphragm. Due to this, our diaphragm contracts irregularly in a jerky way, making us suck air suddenly. This air rushes through our voice box, making the vocal cords to close suddenly, creating a hiccup.
Views: 240400 It's AumSum Time
Rancidity - Why is a bag of chips half full? | #aumsum
Topic: Rancidity Why is a bag of chips half full? Looks like you don't believe me. Open the bag. See I told you. The bag of chips is indeed half full. Why is that so? It is mainly because of a concept called rancidity. When food becomes rancid, it develops an unpleasant smell and taste and it becomes unsafe for consumption. Rancidity generally refers to a condition where the fats and oils present in food get oxidized, resulting in food spoilage. Since the chips contain fats and oils, they are likely to get rancid. Therefore, to prevent this, nitrogen gas is flushed into bags of chips by manufacturers. But, why nitrogen? Nitrogen does not react with fats and oils. As a result, rancidity does not take place. Moreover, a gas in the bag serves as a cushioning agent and prevents the chips from crumbling. That is why the bag of chips is only filled till half.
Views: 278095 It's AumSum Time
Why don't Birds get Electrocuted on Power Cables? | #aumsum
Electricity is the flow of electrons through conductors. It always takes the easiest route, i.e., electricity always flows through a path of least resistance. Now, the power cables through which electricity flows are made of copper. Copper offers least resistance and is a very good conductor of electricity. However, the bird's body offers greater resistance and is not a good conductor as copper. Hence, electricity ignores the bird and flows through the cables and birds don't get electrocuted. Besides this, electricity flows from its highest potential to its lowest. Now, the power cables usually run at different potentials. If bird's feet are on the same power cable, then they are at same potential. Thus, the bird doesn't get electrocuted. However, when the bird touches two cables with different potentials at the same time, then electricity will flow through the bird to go to the other cable with lower potential and the bird will get electrocuted.
Views: 530123 It's AumSum Time
What causes heart attacks? | #aumsum
A heart attack or myocardial infarction is the complete blockage of blood flow to a part of the heart, causing its muscle cells to die. A network of blood vessels called coronary arteries continuously supply oxygenated blood to muscle cells of heart to keep them working properly. However, due to bad lifestyle choices and stress, cholesterol and fats start building in these arteries reducing blood flow to the muscle cells. This buildup is called plaque. Plaque is the main culprit behind most heart attacks. When plaque ruptures, a blood clot forms around it causing the artery to get completely blocked. The blood then cannot pass further to that part of the heart. Thus, due to lack of oxygen, the muscle cells in that part die. This condition is called a heart attack.
Views: 228843 It's AumSum Time
How do ears help with balancing? | #aumsum
Topic: Ear How do ears help with balancing? They really do. You don't believe me. Ok. Can you play a guitar and walk at the same time? How do you think you are able to maintain your balance? Do you know why you can't balance yourself anymore? Wait, I will tell you. This happens because there is a connection between our ears and body balance. Our ear consists of 3 parts, outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. Our inner ear works in sync with our eyes and muscles, helping us maintain balance, while we are doing various activities. The inner ear consists of three semicircular canals called superior semicircular canal, posterior semicircular canal and lateral semicircular canal. The three semicircular canals are arranged in three different positions. Each of these canals has a fluid called endolymph and hair cells called cilia at the base. Whenever we move our head, the fluid moves, resulting in the movement of the cilia as well. When the cilia moves, it sends signals to the brain informing which direction our head has just moved in. Each canal has different functions as per the movement of our head. When we move our head up and down, the superior semicircular canal helps our brain to understand the yes motion. When we tilt our head towards our shoulders, the posterior semicircular canal helps our brain to understand the tilting motion. When we move our head from side to side, the lateral semicircular canal helps our brain to understand the no motion. It was too complicated, right? Ok, don't worry about it. Relax. Why don't you go on a merry go round ride? Hey. Why were you not able to maintain your balance? This is because when you sat in the merry go round and started rotating, the fluid in the semicircular canals also started to move. After a while, it was moving at the same rate at which you were moving. However, when the ride stopped and you got down from the ride, the fluid was still in motion due to inertia. Hence, even though you were not moving, the moving fluid gave your brain a false information telling that you are still in motion. Thus, you were not able to maintain your balance.
Views: 171016 It's AumSum Time
Turgor Pressure - Why does a Touch Me Not plant close? | #aumsum
Topic: Turgor Pressure Why does a touch me not plant close? Hey. Don't touch that plant. You will get scared. See, you did not listen to me. Don't worry. Nothing to be scared about. Let me tell you more about this plant. This plant is called the Mimosa Pudica plant. Another name for it is 'Touch Me Not' Plant. When anyone touches this plant, it closes its leaves with the help of pulvini. Pulvini are present at the base of each leaflet. They consist of cells filled with water. This water applies pressure against the walls of the cells. This pressure is called the turgor pressure. It helps the leaflets to stand upright. Now, when we touch a leaflet of the touch me not plant, specific parts of the plant release certain chemicals. These chemicals cause the cells in the pulvini to lose water. When water is lost, there is no more turgor pressure. As a result, the cells collapse, resulting in the closing of leaflets.
Views: 299648 It's AumSum Time
Why are sunsets red? | #aumsum
It is basically because of scattering of light in the atmosphere. Our atmosphere is primarily composed of tiny nitrogen and oxygen particles. Now usually, when sunlight comprising of seven colors passes through the atmosphere, it hits the nitrogen and oxygen particles. These particles scatter blue and violet light more as compared to red, orange and other colored lights. Hence, mostly bluish light enters our eyes, thus making the sky to usually appear blue. However, during sunset, the sunlight must pass through a greater distance in the earth's atmosphere, causing it to pass through more particles. As a result, most of the blue and violet light get scattered before they reach our eyes. Due to this, the less scattered light like red or orange reaches our eyes, making the sunset appear red. Also, don't forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel.
Views: 115162 It's AumSum Time
How do nails grow? | #aumsum
A nail consists of many different parts. The visible part of the nail is called nail plate. Nail plate lies on the nail bed. Matrix is the area where nail growth originates. It lies below the skin. Matrix has specialized cells which keep dividing and creating nail cells. The nail cells grow and produce a hard protein called keratin. Then, these keratin filled cells are pushed forward as more new cells are formed behind them. Eventually, the keratin filled cells die and flatten to form the nail plate. The hard keratin in these dead cells gives strength to the nail and makes it hard. Do you know what is the use of these nails? Nails protect our finger tips. Moreover, by observing the condition of our nails, doctors can get clues about our overall health.
Views: 1218315 It's AumSum Time
Why does Swiss cheese have holes? | #aumsum
Cheese is made from milk. Milk contains a sugar called lactose which is very important in the formation of cheese. Now while making Swiss cheese, bacteria like S. Thermophilus, Lactobacillus and P. Shermani are added to milk. However, they are good bacteria. Out of these bacteria, the S. Thermophilus and Lactobacillus first convert the lactose into lactic acid, producing curd. Then after undergoing certain processes, when the curd is kept for maturing, the P. Shermani bacteria consumes the lactic acid and releases carbon dioxide gas. Being trapped, the carbon dioxide gas forms bubbles. Eventually, when we cut the cheese, the bubbles pop, resulting in holes in the Swiss cheese.
Views: 134009 It's AumSum Time
Frequency - Why do women have shriller voices than men? | #aumsum
Topic: Frequency Why do women have shriller voices than men? Hey. Hey. That door will open only with a woman's voice command. Don't try to fool me. No. Now how will I enter? Don't worry. Just trust me. A woman's voice is shriller. So, speak as a woman. Could you please. Look. The door opened. This happened because of frequency. Frequency is the number of vibrations per second. More is the frequency, shriller will be the voice or sound. Explain it to me quickly. I can't wait. Alright. Alright. In humans, sound is produced with the help of vocal cords. However, the length of vocal cords of women and men are different. A woman's vocal chords are about 15 millimeters long while a man's vocal chords are about 20 millimeters long. As the vocal chords of a man are comparatively longer, they vibrate less per second, producing sound having low frequency. However, the vocal chords of a woman being short vibrate more per second, thus producing sound having high frequency. As the frequency of sound is higher, women have shriller voices than men.
Views: 116994 It's AumSum Time
Why do we get dandruff? | #aumsum
Dandruff is a condition in which our scalp sheds skin cells in the form of white flakes. A yeast called Malassezia globosa, is one of the mostly accepted reasons for causing dandruff. Malassezia globosa is naturally present on our scalp. It feeds on sebum and releases oleic acid. Now, some people are sensitive to this oleic acid. When it penetrates into the upper layers of their skin, it causes inflammation. Hence, in response to this inflammation, their skin sheds a large number of skin cells at a higher rate. These cells then join together forming white flakes, thus causing dandruff.
Views: 524549 It's AumSum Time
How do vaccines work? | #aumsum
Vaccines train our body to fight against the dangerous disease causing pathogens. Vaccines often contain weakened or dead pathogens. When they are injected into our body, they just trigger the immune response but do not cause fully fledged diseases. Our immune cells recognize these pathogens as foreign invaders and thus, produce antibodies. These antibodies kill the pathogens. Also, the immune cells record the information about the pathogens and the way they were killed. Hence, in case in the future, a similar strong pathogen enters our body, our immune cells remember and easily identify that pathogen. They produce the required antibodies to fight it back. Thus, we remain healthy.
Views: 135965 It's AumSum Time
Neutralization Reaction - How to treat a bee sting? | #aumsum
Topic: Neutralization Reaction How to treat a bee sting? Hey. Hold On. Don't go near that honeycomb. Please listen to me. It is quite dangerous. Fine. Go ahead. See, I told you. Ok. Now, don't worry. Put this baking soda solution on the bee stung area. You got some relief, right? Do you know why you got relief? This happened because a neutralization reaction took place when we applied baking soda on the stung area. The venom of a honey bee contains formic acid. When it stings us, it injects that acid into our skin. Formic acid causes immense pain and irritation. However, when we apply baking soda solution, which is a mild base, on the stung area, it neutralizes the formic acid and cancels its effect. As a result, the sensation of pain and irritation decreases and we get some relief. Such a reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. In neutralization, both acidic and basic solutions neutralize the effect of each other and the nature of both acids and bases gets destroyed. Hey, Wait. What are you doing? Don't tease that insect. It is not a honey bee. It looks similar to a honey bee but it is a bit longer. It is called a wasp. At least this time listen to me. Ok. Don't listen and bear the consequences. Applying the baking soda is not going to help. See, nothing is happening. I will tell you what to do. Pour this vinegar on the stung area, you will get some relief. Why do you think the baking soda solution did not help in this case? Earlier, in case of the honey bee, we learnt that its venom is acidic. Hence, baking soda, being a basic solution helped to neutralize the effect Now, in case of a wasp, the nature of its venom is basic. When it stings us, it injects that venom into our skin. This venom causes us pain and itching. Now, baking soda is also a basic solution. Hence, it will not provide any sort of relief. However, when we pour vinegar, which is a mild acid, on the stung area, the acid, that is, vinegar and the base, that is, the wasp's venom get neutralized. As a result, the sensation of pain and itching decreases and we feel better.
Views: 162187 It's AumSum Time
Buoyancy - Can you drown in the dead sea? | #aumsum
Topic: Buoyancy Can you drown in the dead sea? Your answer must be yes, right? You must be thinking that anybody who cannot swim will obviously drown, whether it is a swimming pool or the dead sea. However, that is not 100% true. Confused? Let me explain to you. When an object is partly or wholly immersed in a fluid, an upward force is exerted by the fluid on that object. This tendency of the fluid to exert an upward force on the object is called buoyancy or upthrust. This upward force is called buoyant force. So, do you finally get it? Let me give you one more example. Place a piece of wood in water and push it downwards. What do you observe? It seems like something is pushing the piece of wood upwards, right? Water exerts an upward force on the wood. That is why the wood is getting pushed upwards. This force is called buoyant force and the tendency of water to exert that buoyant force is called buoyancy. Dead sea has a huge amount of salt dissolved in it as compared to any other sea or ocean. The presence of this salt increases density of water present in the dead sea. Higher density leads to greater buoyant force. As the dead sea has very high density, it exerts enough amount of buoyant force to make us float on it. So, if we can float on the dead sea, we are definitely not going to drown in it.
Views: 295832 It's AumSum Time
How does a plastic comb attract paper? | #aumsum
Topic: Electric Charge How does a plastic comb attract paper? What? You don't believe me? Ok. Let us try. Take a plastic comb and bring it close to some pieces of paper. Hey, Wait. Don't laugh. We need to do something first. Rub the comb on your dry hair and then bring the comb close to the pieces of paper. See, I was correct. The pieces of paper got attracted to the plastic comb. Do you think it is magic? No, the reason behind this is electric charge. Electric charge is the quantity of electricity held in an object. There are 2 types of electric charges, positive and negative. However, there are some objects where the positive and negative charges are equal to one another. In such cases, we say that the object is electrically neutral. So, was the plastic comb initially electrically neutral or electrically charged? Initially, the plastic comb was electrically neutral. That means it had equal number of positive and negative charges. Hence, it did not have the ability to exert a force and attract the pieces of paper. So, after rubbing the plastic comb on our dry hair, why was it able to attract the pieces of paper? I will tell you why. When we rubbed the plastic comb on our dry hair, it gained an electric charge. Once it got electrically charged, it got the ability to exert a force on the pieces of paper and attract them. This charge is called as static electricity. However, do you think, like a plastic comb, a metallic comb will also attract the pieces of paper? No, you are wrong. A metallic comb will not attract the pieces of paper like the plastic comb. Wondering why is that so? It is because plastic is not a good conductor of electricity. It does not allow the electric charges to flow through it onto the earth. As a result, the charges build in the plastic comb, making it electrically charged and enabling it to attract the pieces of paper. However, metal is a good conductor of electricity. It does not let the charges build in it. It allows the electric charges to flow through it onto the earth, thus, not allowing the metallic comb to get electrically charged. As a result, the metallic comb does not attract the pieces of paper.
Views: 127321 It's AumSum Time
Why are we Afraid of the Dark? | #aumsum
Some experts say humans have developed this fear due to evolution. In prehistoric times, our ancestors were at high risk of being attacked by predators or enemies, when in dark. Hence, through evolution, the tendency to fear darkness developed. Also, in the dark, as we cannot see properly, it creates anxiety, making us imagine the worst possible outcomes. So, it is not the darkness itself that we find frightening, it is what or who lurks in that darkness. Also, if we observe other people getting afraid, or if we are told to be afraid about something, we immediately accept those things as scary. So, whether it is our parents warning us about the dark, or a horror movie showing a ghost appear in the dark, our brain latches onto it and starts getting afraid of the darkness.
Views: 123642 It's AumSum Time
Why do Bees Die when they Sting us? | #aumsum
Honeybees are the only bees that die after stinging. But if they die, why do they sting? Bees only sting when they feel we are a threat to their queen or their hive. Now, the stinger of a honeybee is barbed. After stinging, it can easily come out, if the skin is thin. But since human skin is thick, the barbed stinger gets stuck. Hence, when the bee tries to pull herself, she ends up tearing the abdomen, leaving behind her venom sac, parts of the digestive tract, etc., and thus, killing herself. Now, although the bee is dead, we should make sure that we remove the sting. This is because in spite of being detached from the bee, the venom sac continues to pump venom, thus increasing the pain.
Views: 274790 It's AumSum Time
Why is salt added to icy roads? | #aumsum
Salt helps melt the ice and thus, clear the roads. Do you know how? The freezing or melting point of water is about 0 degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit. When temperature drops below the melting point, water molecules bond together to form solid ice. However, when temperature rises above the melting point, the bonds break and the ice melts forming liquid water. Now, when we add salt or sodium chloride to ice, it lowers the melting point causing solid ice to melt and form liquid even at temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius. Then, the salt dissociates in the liquid water forming sodium and chloride ions. These ions make it harder for liquid water molecules to again bond together and form ice. Hence, the melting ice does not refreeze and thus, helps clear the roads. Also, don't forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel.
Views: 142140 It's AumSum Time
Why do we Puke? | #aumsum
Puking or vomiting is the forcible emptying of stomach contents through our mouth. Though disgusting, it is actually our body’s protective mechanism to get rid of toxic foods, that we might have ingested. Vomiting is generally controlled by a part of the brain called area postrema. When it instructs our stomach to purge, several things happen in our body. The teeth get coated with excess saliva to protect them from stomach acid. Our heart rate and breathing increases as we retch. Finally, the stomach and other abdominal muscles forcefully push the contents upwards and we puke. Now, there are various reasons why we puke. Common reasons include food poisoning, motion sickness, stomach flu, pregnancy, etc. However, there are some other reasons as well, such as overeating, stress, head injury, ear problems, excess consumption of alcohol, drugs, etc.
Views: 90037 It's AumSum Time
Why is nuclear fusion not used to generate electricity? | #aumsum
Topic: Nuclear fusion Why is nuclear fusion not used to generate electricity? You really want to know the answer to this, right? But wait. Before answering the question, let us understand what is meant by nuclear fusion. When two lighter nuclei combine to form a heavy nucleus, a large amount of energy is released. This process is called nuclear fusion. Where does this nuclear fusion take place? You think that it takes place in a laboratory? No, you are absolutely wrong. Nuclear fusion takes place in the sun. The nuclei of two hydrogen atoms join together to form a heavy nucleus of helium with the release of a large amount of energy. How do you think this energy reaches us? Nah. It does not reach us through power lines. Wait I will tell you. The energy released after nuclear fusion reaches us in the form of sunlight, ultraviolet radiations, heat, etc. Hey. But we are already producing electricity with the help of nuclear fission. So, why do we require nuclear fusion? For this, you need to first understand the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. As we already know, nuclear fusion is the fusion of two lighter nuclei with the release of a large amount of energy. The exact opposite process happens in nuclear fission. Here, a heavier nucleus splits into two lighter nuclei, releasing a large amount of energy. This process of fission is used in nuclear power plants, where a heavy nucleus of uranium is split into lighter nuclei. The energy that is released in this is used to generate electricity. However, there is a major disadvantage of nuclear fission. Wondering what it is? The major disadvantage is that uranium is a radioactive element. When uranium undergoes fission, it generates radioactive waste along with energy. This radioactive waste is very harmful for most lifeforms and the environment. Hence, we need to find a clean and safe source of energy to generate electricity. What source would that be? Would it be nuclear fusion? You are right. Then why are we not harnessing the energy of nuclear fusion to produce electricity? This is because, for nuclear fusion, two conditions are required. They are high pressure and high temperature. Only when these conditions are met, can the two nuclei travel at very high speeds resulting in collision. On earth, it is extremely difficult to create such high pressure and temperature. Even if we are somehow able to create these conditions, the question is how will we control them? As there are many questions unanswered and unsolved, we have not yet succeeded in using nuclear fusion in the production of electricity.
Views: 250605 It's AumSum Time
Why do we have two eyes instead of one? | #aumsum
Topic: Eyes Why do we have two eyes instead of one? You don't know? Ok. To understand this better, close your right eye. Now, are you able to see the table kept on your right side? You are not able to see it, right? Ok. Let me tell you why. Both our eyes work together and help us to see, judge and perceive a view accurately. Having two eyes provides us with a wider field of view. When both our eyes are open, we get a horizontal field of view of about 180 degrees. However, with only one eye open, we get a horizontal field of view of only around 150 degrees. We are unable to view around 20 to 30 degrees. Hence, we were not able to see the table when our one eye was closed. Hey. Did you know that our eyes see the same object from a slightly different angle? You don't believe me? Alright. Look at this object. Both your eyes see the object like this. Now, when you see only with your left eye, the object will look like this. While, when you see only with your right eye, the object will look like this. Our eyes send these two slightly different images to the brain. The brain blends or combines both the images to make a three dimensional image of the object. Hey. But what is the use of a three-dimensional image? A three dimensional image helps us to understand how far or how near an object is from us, facilitating better depth or distance perception. This means having two eyes enables us to judge the distance of the object or the depth at which the object is placed from us.
Views: 202677 It's AumSum Time
Why do we have different time zones? | #aumsum
Our earth rotates on its own axis. Due to this rotation, different parts of the earth receive different amounts of sunlight, thus causing morning, noon, evening and night. Now, if we had one time zone, then 12 pm would be noon at some places, but it would be night or evening at other places which would be inconvenient. Hence, scientists made different time zones according to the earth's rotation with respect to the sun. Do you know how? The earth makes one full 360 degrees rotation in 24 hours. This means in one hour, the earth moves by 15 degrees. Using this information, scientist divided the planet into 24 sections or time zones. Each section or region was about 15 degrees wide and had a specific standard time. This helped us know the proper time of the day in that part of the earth. Also, don't forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel.
Views: 80985 It's AumSum Time
Why does spicy food make your nose run? | #aumsum
Topic: Human Nose Why does spicy food make your nose run? Because it is not that strong to make me run. No. Our nose consists of tiny hair and a sticky substance called mucus. Can I use this mucus to stick my broken vase? Gross. Please don't do that and listen. During breathing, the hair and mucus trap harmful substances, thus prohibiting them from entering deep inside the body. Now, spicy food items like chili, mustard, horseradish and wasabi contain chemicals called capsaicin and allyl isothiocyanate. When we eat such food items, the capsaicin and allyl isothiocyanate travel through the pharynx and reach our nose. Here, the chemicals activate the heat sensing receptors, thus causing inflammation in our nose and irritation of the mucus. Hence, as a defense mechanism more mucus is produced in our nose to get rid of these chemicals, thus making our nose run.
Views: 159916 It's AumSum Time
What exactly killed the Dinosaurs? | #aumsum
Most people believe that an asteroid killed all dinosaurs, but that wasn’t the only reason. Dinosaurs were already declining due to volcanism, far before the asteroid impact. Super volcanic eruptions spewed out lava, dust, soot and various gases into the atmosphere. This triggered a drastic climate change, slowly reducing the dinosaur count. Then, around 66 million years ago, a 6-mile-wide asteroid crashed into the earth in Yucatán Peninsula. How do we know? Scientists found a layer in rocks, called K-PG boundary. It is rich in Iridium. Iridium isn’t found on earth’s surface, but is abundant in asteroids, proving that an asteroid crashed the earth. This caused large rocks to blast into the air and fall back as molten rocks. Huge tsunamis worsened the condition, eventually making dinosaurs extinct.
Views: 341638 It's AumSum Time
Why do stars seem higher than they actually are? | #aumsum
Topic: Atmospheric Refraction Why do stars seem higher than they actually are? Hey. That is not the actual position of the star Please listen. Fine. Then bear the consequences. See. I told you. Do you know why this happens? This happens because of atmospheric refraction. Atmospheric refraction is the refraction or bending of light caused by the earth's atmosphere. It went over your head, right? No worries. Let me explain it to you in detail. In the earth's atmosphere, the air closer to the earth's surface is denser due to gravity. But as we move higher, the air density goes on decreasing. This forms different media of air. The layer of air closer to the earth's surface forms the denser medium while the layer of air higher up in the sky forms the rarer medium. Now, when the light of a star enters our atmosphere and passes from one medium to another, atmospheric refraction takes place and the light bends. When this light reaches our eyes, our eyes trace it backward as a straight line. Due to this, the light appears to come from a higher point. Hence, the star seems to be higher than it actually is.
Views: 74482 It's AumSum Time
Density - Why does an iron nail float on mercury and sink in water? | #aumsum
Topic: Density Why does an iron nail float on mercury and sink in water? Looks like you are stuck in the middle of a huge sea. Really. I had no idea. No. Don't take the nail into water. It will sink. Take the nail into mercury. It will float and help you reach the shore. You are bluffing. How will the nail float in mercury? Please listen to me. No. See. I warned you. Will you now use the nail in mercury? Yeah, Yeah. I will. Do you know why the iron nail sank in water and floated on mercury? It is because of density. Density is the measure of mass present per unit volume. Lesser the density of the fluid, lesser will be the upward force exerted by the fluid on the object placed in it. In the first case, the iron nail sinks in water because the density of water is comparatively less than the iron nail. As water is less dense, the upward force exerted by it on the nail is less. Hence, the nail sinks in water. However, in the second case, as the density of mercury is comparatively more than the iron nail, the upward force exerted by mercury is more. Hence, the nail floats on mercury.
Views: 142955 It's AumSum Time
Why does a match light when you strike it? | #aumsum
Topic: Ignition Temperature Why does a match light when you strike it? Why don't you use a match instead? You will be able to light the bonfire easily. No. I don't believe you. Try it. Look. I told you. Dude. That was awesome. This happened because of low ignition temperature. Ignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which a combustible substance starts burning. Lower the ignition temperature, more easily will it catch fire. Now, a match head contains antimony trisulfide and potassium chlorate. Enough. I know how to use it now. No. The match will not light on any surface. The rubbing surface of a matchbox has powdered glass and red phosphorus. On striking the match against it, friction is caused. Friction generates heat, converting red phosphorus to white phosphorus. White phosphorus has a very low ignition temperature. It immediately ignites in air, producing heat and light, thus beginning the process of combustion. The heat produced breaks down the potassium chlorate present in the match head, releasing more oxygen. This oxygen combines with antimony trisulfide which is also in the match head and keeps the flame burning.
Views: 51020 It's AumSum Time
What causes chapped lips? | #aumsum
Our lips are very sensitive. This is because the outermost layer of our skin called stratum corneum is much thinner on our lips than on any other body parts. As it is thinner, the blood vessels inside them are more prominent making our lips appear reddish or pinkish. Besides this, the skin on our lips doesn't have oil and sweat glands which secrete substances to moisturize the lips. Hence, our lips have very less moisture. Now, usually during cold months, as the air has less moisture, the moisture from our lips evaporates causing them to get dry and chapped. So to provide moisture, we can lick our lips and apply saliva. No. Saliva draws more moisture and heat from our lips and evaporates, thus leaving our lips more drier than before and thus, making the condition worse.
Views: 173640 It's AumSum Time
Can jellyfish live forever? | #aumsum
To understand this, let us observe the lifecycle of a jellyfish. A fertilized egg of a jellyfish forms planula. Planula then attaches itself to a hard surface like a rock or sea floor. Then, it transforms into a polyp. Then through a process called budding, tiny jellyfishes emerge from the polyp. Some jellyfishes may live for a few hours, some may live for a few months while some may live for several years. However, a type of jellyfish known as Turritopsis dohrnii which is also called the immortal jellyfish is said to live forever. When the immortal jellyfish is injured, stressed or cannot find enough food, it reverses its life cycle. It transforms into a blob-like structure called cyst which then transforms into a polyp. Then again through budding, tiny jellyfishes emerge from the polyp, thus making Turritopsis dohrnii immortal.
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Nitrogen Cycle | #aumsum
Nitrogen cycle. Atmospheric nitrogen cannot be used directly by plants and animals. Nitrogen needs to get converted to nitrogenous compounds. This process is called Nitrogen fixation.
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Why do we hear echoes? | #aumsum
Topic: Sound Why do we hear echoes? Hey. Hold On. Don't go into that room. You don't want to listen to me. Ok. Then go ahead. See, I warned you. Will you listen to me now? Don't worry. The sound you heard was just an echo of your voice. Let me explain what an echo is. When we speak or laugh in a big empty hall, we hear our own sound repeatedly. This is because our sound waves get reflected from the walls of the hall back to us. The reflected sound that we hear is called an echo. Hence, an echo is defined as the repetition of sound caused by the reflection of sound waves from a hard surface back to the listener. Hey. What are you doing? Are you trying to hear an echo? It is not that easy. There are 2 ideal conditions for an echo to be heard. When we speak or laugh, we hear our original sound at that moment. The sensation of this original sound remains in our brain till 0.1 seconds. This time is called the persistence of hearing. When we utter sounds, some of our sound waves get reflected while some get absorbed. If the reflected sound waves reach our ears before the completion of 0.1 seconds, then our brain does not perceive the original and reflected sounds as separate sounds. They are interpreted as one sound Therefore, in order to hear two distinct sounds or an echo, the time gap between the original sound and the reflected sound or echo should be at least 0.1 seconds. This is the first condition for an echo to be heard. Do you know when the time gap will be more than 0.1 seconds? This gets us to the second condition for an echo. The minimum distance between the speaker and the reflecting surface should be at least 17.2 meters. When the distance is 17.2 meters and we start speaking, assume that the original sound reaches our ears at this time and the reflected sound reaches our ears at this time, then the time interval between the reflected sound and the original sound will be equal to 0.1 seconds. As a result, we will be able to hear an echo. Alright. Now, let us try and hear an echo in this room? It is even bigger than the previous room. Now, why can't we hear an echo? This is because there are many soft furnishings like sofas, carpets, curtains, etc., in this room. They absorb most of the sound waves. As the sound waves do not get reflected, we are not able to hear an echo in this room. Hence, one more thing to consider, if we want to hear an echo, is that there should be minimal use of such sound absorbing materials.
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Why do we sweat? | #aumsum
Topic: Thermoregulation Why do we sweat? It is a natural way of our body to take a bath. No. Sweating helps in thermoregulation. Thermoregulation is the process by which organisms maintain their internal body temperature. Now, the internal body temperature of a human is about 37 degrees Celsius or 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Our enzymes and hormones work best at this temperature. Hence, thermoregulation is very important for us. Well, If you ask my opinion, chocolate syrup is very important for me. Just listen. On a sunny day or during exercise, when our body temperature increases, our sweat glands produce sweat. This sweat is about 99% water. Water is a very good heat absorbent. It absorbs much of our body heat and evaporates into the atmosphere, helping us lose heat and thus maintaining our body temperature.
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What causes kidney stones? | #aumsum
Topic: Kidney Stones What causes kidney stones? Swallowing a stone? No. Our kidneys filter blood by removing waste from it in the form of urine. Urine consists of water, urea, uric acid and ions like calcium, sodium, oxalate and potassium. However, when some of these constituents such as uric acid, calcium and oxalate ions increase in the urine, they bond together forming kidney stones or renal calculi. One of the most common kidney stones is calcium oxalate. So, can I use it to build my house? Just listen. Generally, the kidney stones are small. Hence, they pass unnoticed through the urinary tract. However, sometimes these stones become so big that they start to scratch walls of the urinary tract and may block the path of the urine, thus causing immense pain.
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Diffusion - Why can we smell hot food from a distance? | #aumsum
Topic: Diffusion Why can we smell hot food from a distance? Hey. Looks like you have lost your way. No. I know the way. Fine. Don't listen. See, I told you. Now listen to me. There is a restaurant next to your house where hot sizzling food is available, right? Yeah. Yummy. Follow its smell and you will reach home. I have reached home. Do you know how the smell of that food reached you? When food gets cooked, it releases some aromatic gases into the air. The molecules of these gases spread and mix with air molecules. When this air reaches our nose, we get the smell of food. This process of spreading and mixing of a substance with another substance is called diffusion. But then, why couldn't I smell the food inside my house from a distance? This is because that food had become cold. On heating food, the molecules of its aromatic gases gain kinetic energy and start vibrating faster. They spread and mix easily into air, leading to an increased rate of diffusion. As the food gets cold, the temperature of the aromatic gases decreases. The kinetic energy of molecules decreases and they do not vibrate as much anymore. Thus, the rate of diffusion decreases and we cannot smell the food from a distance.
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Why does sound travel faster in summer than in winter? | #aumsum
Topic: Speed of sound Why does sound travel faster in summer than in winter? Wow. That was an amazing trick. The television switched on immediately after you clapped. I know. This is one of my favorite tricks. Now, I bet you that the television will not switch on instantly after your clap. This time I am going to prove you wrong. See. I told you. I lost again. Do you know why the sound took more time to reach the television? This is because the speed of sound decreased. Speed of sound depends on the temperature of the medium. Higher the temperature of the medium, more will be the speed of sound and vice versa. So, in this case, what do you think is the medium? Are you kidding me? I don't know. No Problem. I will tell you. In this case, air is the medium. During summer season, the temperature of air increases. At higher temperature, the molecules of air have more kinetic energy. Hence, they vibrate faster leading to increase in speed of sound. Now, during winter season, the temperature of air decreases. With decrease in temperature, the kinetic energy of the molecules also decreases. Hence, the molecules do not vibrate much. As a result, the speed of sound decreases during winter season.
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Friction - Why is it difficult to pull a boat on the beach than on the sea? | #aumsum
Topic: Friction Why is it difficult to pull a boat on the beach than on the sea? Hey. You will find it difficult to pull the boat on the beach. Pull it on the sea. There it will be quite easy. Indeed. Why not? Fine. Don't listen. I am so tired. At least now try to pull the boat on the sea. It is quite easy, right? Yeah. Do you know why? This is because of friction. Friction is the force which opposes the motion of an object. It always acts in the direction opposite to the direction of motion. The amount of friction depends upon the texture of an object and the surface on which it is being moved. Rough textures or surfaces offer greater friction as compared to smooth textures or surfaces. Do you want to say that my brand new boat has a rough texture? No. Even though the texture of the boat is almost smooth, the small particles of sand present on beach form a rough surface. Hence, when we pull the boat on beach, the sand particles offer greater friction and oppose the motion of the boat, thus making it difficult to move the boat on beach. However, the sea being a liquid, forms a smooth surface. Hence, when we pull the boat on sea, it offers less friction, thus making it comparatively less difficult to pull the boat on sea.
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Why don't Sharks have Bones? | #aumsum
Sharks belong to a special class of animals called Chondrichthyes. The skeleton of these animals is not made of bones, instead it is made of cartilage. Cartilage is the same stuff that our ears and nose are made up of, and it is due to this material that sharks are able to skillfully maneuver in water. Do you know how? Cartilage is less dense than bones. Hence, it is much lighter, making sharks weigh less and thus, helping them stay afloat. Also, as the cartilage is flexible, it gives shark the ability to swim quickly, catch its prey as well as conserve energy. Besides this, studies have shown that the skeleton made of cartilage heals faster than that made of bones. So, sharks are boneless.
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Why are Flies so Hard to Swat? | #aumsum
When we see the world, our eyes send around 60 images or flashes per second to the brain. Our brain then combines these images, helping us see like this. The eyes of a fly send 250 flashes per second to their brain, meaning, it takes in 4 times more visual information. Hence, when its brain combines 250 images, one second feels much longer, making the fly see in slow motion and allowing it to react much quicker than us. Now, when we move our hand to swat a sitting fly, our action seems like a super quick single action to us. However, owing to the fly's ability to see our action in slow motion, it gets enough time to fly away, even as we are just in the middle of the action.
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How can Parrots Talk like Humans? | #aumsum
Birds like songbirds, hummingbirds and parrots are vocal learners. They have defined centers called cores in their brain which control their vocal learning. However, only parrots can talk like humans. Do you know why? According to a research, this is because their brain is designed quiet differently than songbirds and hummingbirds. In their brains, parrots have an additional structure, what scientists call, shells or outer rings surrounding the cores. These shells are believed to help parrots to be really good at copying sounds, thus giving them the ability to talk like humans. In addition to this, parrots are highly sociable animals. As they crave interaction as well as attention, they start mimicking us to become a part of our flock.
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Why don't we drink seawater? | #aumsum
One of the reasons for not drinking seawater is its taste. But besides taste, we don't drink seawater because it contains extreme amount of salt which can have dangerous effects on our body. Now, normally in our body, the amount of water and salt, inside and outside our cells is the same. However, if we drink seawater, the amount of salt outside our cells will increase, making the outside region much more concentrated. Hence, to dilute the outside region and maintain balance, inside and outside the cells, the water present inside the cells starts flowing outside, causing our cells to shrink. Moreover, to remove the extreme amount of salt, our kidneys will produce more urine making us urinate more water and thus, causing severe dehydration. Also, don't forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel.
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Why is Hot water Harmful for Fish? | #aumsum
Most fish use oxygen dissolved in water for respiration and metabolism. However, solubility of gases decreases with increase in temperature. Hence, as the water gets warmer, less oxygen begins to dissolve in water, making it hard for the fish to breathe. Also, as temperature increases, the fish's metabolism increases, in turn increasing the oxygen requirement. Eventually, there won't be enough oxygen for the fish, causing it to suffocate and maybe die. Hence, if you have an aquarium, you should always check and maintain its water temperature. You can also use a filter or bubbler which helps add and circulate oxygen, thus maintaining your fish's health.
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Archimedes Principle - Why do we weigh less in water? | #aumsum
Topic: Archimedes Principle Why do we weigh less in water? Hey. Looks like you have gained a lot of weight. Come on. Let us check your weight. You weigh 132 pounds. Alright. Don't get stressed. Check your weight in water. Look. It is much lesser. Do you know why you weighed less in water? The answer to this is based on Archimedes Principle. Not that principal. Archimedes Principle is a fundamental truth which states that an object fully or partly immersed in a fluid experiences an upward force called buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it. It went over your head, right? No worries. Let me explain. Gravity always pulls us downwards. Hence, the weight of our body always acts downwards whether we are on ground or in water. However, according to Archimedes Principle, when we are in water, we experience an upward force, that is, buoyant force which is equal to the weight of water displaced by us. This upward force cancels a portion of our weight causing us to weigh less in water.
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Chromatography | #aumsum
Our topic for today is Chromatography. Does black ink consist of only black color or any other color as well? Let us find out by the process of paper chromatography. Chromatography is a technique of separating two or more dissolved solids which are present in a solution in very small quantities. Take a strip of filter paper. Draw a line with a pencil close to the lower edge of the paper. Put a small drop of ink on the center of the line. Let it dry for sometime. Take a jar containing some water. Put the filter paper in it such that the drop of ink is just above the water level. After sometime, the water starts gradually rising up by capillary action. As the water moves up, it takes the dyes present in the ink along with it. Slowly, we start seeing some different colors on the paper as the water rises up, these are the different dyes present in the ink. Different dyes have different solubility levels and travel at different speeds as the water rises up. As a result, we see different colors at different heights and the dyes get separated. Hence, in this way paper chromatography is used to separate the different colors in a dye.
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Why do we get angry when we are hungry? | #aumsum
Due to hunger, when people get grumpy and angry, then they are said to be hangry. Hunger induced anger is believed to be caused due to various reasons. When we eat food, it is mostly converted to glucose. This glucose is absorbed by blood and then transported to our cells, especially those present in our brain. However, when glucose level drops, our brain perceives it as a life-threatening situation. It gets stressed, thus making us impatient and irritated which eventually leads to anger. In addition to this, when our energy levels are low, a brain chemical called Neuropeptide Y is produced that makes us hungry and encourages us to eat. But as the same chemical regulates aggression, its production makes us angry as well, thus making us hangry.
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What is Special about a Giraffes Heart? | #aumsum
Giraffe is the world’s tallest animal. Its neck is almost 6 feet long. This means a giraffe’s brain is six feet above its heart, making it difficult to pump blood to the brain against gravity. Now, the special thing about giraffe’s heart is that it remarkably pumps blood all the way to the brain, overcoming the gravity. Do you know how? Giraffes’ have a big heart with thick walls. It can weigh up to 25 pounds. That is equal to 50 human hearts. Due to this big heart and thick walls, a giraffe’s blood pressure can be two times higher than human beings, helping it defy gravity and pump blood to the brain.
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Why does ice float? | #aumsum
It is because of density. Density is the measure of mass present per unit volume. Lesser the density, lighter is the object. Now, every water molecule has two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. However, besides being attached to its own oxygen atom, a hydrogen atom is also attracted to oxygen atoms of other water molecules, forming hydrogen bonds. In liquid state, the hydrogen bonds are not strong. They constantly break and reform. Thus, the molecules get arranged in disordered patterns which leave very less empty spaces. However, when temperature drops below 4 degrees Celsius and ice begins to form, the hydrogen bonds become strong and stable, forming hexagonal patterns which have a large number of empty spaces. These large empty spaces make ice less dense or lighter than water, causing ice to float on water.
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Why don't cockroaches die easily? | #aumsum
Cockroaches are highly resilient creatures. They even survived the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs. Cockroaches don’t die easily because they have a strong, flexible exoskeleton. It helps them withstand weights which are up to 300 to 900 times their own body weight. In addition to this, cockroaches can live without food for a month and a week without water. Cockroaches can even hold their breath for around 40 minutes in water and can survive without a head for a week. They also have tiny holes on their bodies which help them breathe, thus preventing them from dying instantly.
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